Highest temperature departure for June 2016 since global temperature records began in 1880
- Category: Climate Change
- Published: Wednesday, 20 July 2016 10:10
- Written by Bernd Riebe
- Hits: 5021
In the atmosphere, 500-millibar height pressure anomalies correlate well with temperatures at the Earth's surface. The average position of the upper-level ridges of high pressure and troughs of low pressure—depicted by positive and negative 500-millibar height anomalies on the June 2016 map—is generally reflected by areas of positive and negative temperature anomalies at the surface, respectively.
Warmer to much-warmer-than-average conditions dominated across much of the globe's surface, resulting in the highest temperature departure for June since global temperature records began in 1880. This was also the 14th consecutive month the monthly global temperature record has been broken—the longest such streak in NOAA's 137 years of record keeping. The June 2016 combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces was 0.90°C (1.62°F) above the 20th century average, besting the previous record set in 2015 by 0.02°C (0.04°F). June 2016 marks the 40th consecutive June with temperatures at least nominally above the 20th century average. The last time June global land and ocean temperatures were below average was in 1976 (-0.07°C / -0.13°F). June 2016 tied with March 2015 as the ninth highest monthly temperature departure among all months (1,638) on record. Overall, 14 of the 15 highest monthly temperature departures in the record have all occurred since February 2015, with January 2007 among the 15 highest monthly temperature departures. June 2016 also marks the 378th consecutive month with temperatures at least nominally above the 20th century average. The last month with temperatures below the 20th century average was December 1984 (-0.09°C / -0.16°F).
The majority of the world's land surface had warmer to much-warmer-than-average temperatures during June 2016, with the largest temperature departures observed across much of north-central Russia, the Russian Far East, and northern Australia where temperature departures were 3.0°C (5.4°F) or higher. Record warmth was sporadically across parts of the southwestern contiguous U.S., southern Mexico, northeastern Brazil, northeastern and southwestern Africa, the Middle East, northern Australia, and Indonesia. The only land area with cooler-than-average conditions during June 2016, according to the percentiles map, was central and southern South America. No land areas had a record cold temperature during June 2016. According to NCEI's Global Regional Analysis, five of six continents had at least a top five warm June, with North America observing a record high average temperature for June.
Averaged as a whole, the global temperature across land surfaces for June 2016 was 1.24°C (2.23°F) above the 20th century average—tying with 2015 as the highest June temperature in the 1880–2016 record. June 2016 marks the 34th consecutive June with temperatures at least nominally above average. The last time global land surface temperatures were below average in June was in 1982 (-0.05°C / -0.09°F).
Select national information is highlighted below. (Please note that different countries report anomalies with respect to different base periods. The information provided here is based directly upon these data):
Australia's mean temperature during June 2016 was 1.30°C (2.34°F) above the 1961–1990 average, the sixth highest June temperature since national temperature records began in 1910. Minimum temperatures were much warmer than average, while maximum temperatures were near average. The nationally-averaged minimum temperature was 2.22°C (4.00°F) above average—the fourth highest June minimum temperature on record.
The June 2016 mean temperature across the United Kingdom was 13.9°C (57.0°F) or 0.9°C (1.6°F) above the 1981–2010 average. The warmer-than-average value was mainly driven by extremely warm nighttime temperatures. The nation's averaged minimum temperature tied as the highest since national records began in 1910. Regionally, England and Wales also had the highest (or joint highest) average minimum temperature since 1910.New Zealand's average temperature during June 2016 was 10.2°C (50.4°F), which is 1.6°C (2.9°F) above the 1981–2010 average—the third highest June temperature departure from average since national records began in 1909. According to New Zealand's National Climate Centre, the cities of Christchurch and Dunedin had their highest June temperature on record.
Extremely hot conditions plagued Hong Kong, China during most of June. Maximum temperatures above 35.0°C (95.0°F) affected the region for four consecutive days during 24–27 June, surpassing the previous record of three consecutive days (30 May–1 June 1963) of maximum temperatures above 35°C (95°F). The highest daily maximum temperature recorded in June 2016 was 35.5°C (95.9°F) on 25 June 2016—the second highest maximum temperature in June since records began in 1884. The monthly mean temperature for Hong Kong was 1.5°C (2.7°F) above the 1981–2010 average and the second highest mean temperature for June.
Warmer-than-average temperatures were observed across Spain during June 2016. The national average temperature was 0.7°C (1.26°F) above the 1981–2010 average. This was the tenth highest June temperature since 1965.
According to the Centro Internacional para la Investigación del Fenómeno de El Niño (CIIFEN), the average monthly temperature along much of the western coast of South America continued to be predominantly above average, with temperature departures from average as high as 2.0°C (3.6°F) in Colombia; while the interior of South America (Bolivia and Paraguay) had below average temperatures (-1.0°C / -1.8°F).
The worldwide ocean surface temperature during June 2016 was 0.77°C (1.39°F) above the 20th century average, the highest global ocean temperature for June in the 137-year record. This value surpassed the previous record set in 2015 by 0.03°C (0.05°F). June 2016 was the 10th highest departure from average among all 1,638 months in the record. June 2016 marks the 40th consecutive June with global ocean temperatures at least nominally above the 20th century average. The 12 highest monthly global ocean temperature departures have all occurred in the past 12 months.
According to the percentiles map, much warmer-than-average temperatures engulfed most of the world's oceans during June 2016, with record high sea surface temperatures across parts of the central and southwest Pacific Ocean, northwestern and southwestern Atlantic Ocean, and across parts of the northeastern Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, near to cooler-than-average conditions were limited across the northern Atlantic Ocean, northern Pacific Ocean and parts of the southern Oceans. The only ocean area with record cold temperatures was east of the Drake Passage off the southern tip of South America.
ENSO neutral conditions (neither El Niño nor La Niña) prevailed across the tropical Pacific Ocean during June 2016. According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, La Niña is favored to develop during August–October 2016, with about 55–60 percent chance of La Niña during the Northern Hemisphere fall and winter 2016–17. This forecast focuses on the ocean surface temperatures between 5°N and 5°S latitude and 170°W to 120°W longitude, called the Niño 3.4 region.
NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for June 2016