March 2015: Another Warmest Month on Record for the Planet

global temperatures march 2015

18 April, 2015 - The average temperature across global land and ocean surface temperatures combined for March 2015 was 0.85°C (1.53°F) higher than the 20th century average of 12.7°C (54.9°F). This marks the highest March temperature in the 136-year period of record, surpassing the previous record of 2010 by 0.05°C (0.09°F). The Northern Hemisphere had its second highest March temperature on record, behind only 2008, while the Southern hemisphere tied with 2002 for third highest.
The March 2015 global temperature was the third highest monthly departure from average on record for any month, just 0.01°C (0.02°F) lower than the monthly anomalies for February 1998 and January 2007. This also replaces February 2015 (+0.84°C / +1.51°F) as the third highest departure from average among all months, moving that month to fourth highest. Seven of the past eleven months (May, June, August, September, October, and December 2014, along with March 2015) have tied or set new record high monthly temperatures.

global table
The average March temperature over land surfaces across the globe tied with 1990 as the second highest for March on record, at 1.59°C (2.86°F) above the 20th century average. The warmth was spread fairly evenly across the hemispheres, as the Northern and Southern Hemisphere each observed their third highest March land surface temperatures on record. Most land areas were warmer to much warmer than average, as shown by the Temperature Percentiles map above, with record warmth in parts of the western United States and Canada, various regions in eastern Africa, parts of Scandinavia and northwestern Russia, part of south central China, and an area of northeastern Australia. Central India, southeastern Mauritania, central Mexico, and eastern Canada were cooler than average. Part of northeastern Canada was much cooler than average, with the region observing temperatures at least 3°C (5°F) below average. On the other side of the continent, most of central to western North America had temperatures at least 3°C higher than the 20th century average. Temperatures were also at least 3°C above average across most of Eurasia, with the exception of Far East Russia south of the East Siberian Sea, which was cooler than average.

· Australia observed its eighth warmest March since national records began in 1910, due mainly to heat in the north and east of the country. Queensland was the hotspot, with its warmest maximum (anomalies of +2.88°C / +5.18°F), minimum (+1.62°C / +2.91°F), and mean (+1.89°C / +3.40°F) temperatures compared to the 1961–90 average in the 106-year period of record. Victoria and Tasmania were cooler than average for the month, while South Australia and Western Australia were close to average.

· It was also a warm March in New Zealand thanks to frequent tropical airflow over the country, according to NIWA, with the national temperature for the month 1.0°C (1.8°F) above the 1981–2010 average. Many sites observed temperatures well above average (at least +1.2°C / +2.2°F).

For the oceans, the March global sea surface temperature was 0.55°C (0.99°F) higher than the 20th century average for the month. This marks the third highest globally-averaged March temperature in the 136-year period of record. Only March 1998 and 2010 ocean surface temperatures were warmer, with both months 0.56°C (1.01°F) higher than the 20th century average. Record warm temperatures continued to dominate in the northeast Pacific Ocean and were also notable in the southwest Pacific and parts of the Arctic Seas to the north and northwest of Scandinavia. Overall, every major ocean basin had at least some areas with record warmth and large areas with much warmer-than-average temperatures. Also, continuing a pattern seen since fall 2014, much of the North Atlantic Ocean between Canada and the United Kingdom had much cooler-than-average temperatures during March, with an area of record cold observed within that that region.
El Niño conditions were present during March. Ocean temperatures in the Niño 3.4 region—the area between 5°N and 5°S latitude and 170°W to 120°W longitude where ENSO conditions are monitored—was +0.7°C (+0.11°F) during the last week of March, according to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC), indicating that a weak-phase El Niño is continuing. According to the CPC, there is about a 70 percent chance that El Niño will continue through Northern Hemisphere summer 2015, and more than 60 percent chance it will last through fall. El Niño conditions tend to enhance global temperatures, with stronger events having generally larger impacts.

NOAA National Climatic Data Center, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for March 2015

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USAID grants help FSM communities cope with climate change and enhance livelihoods


Embassy of the United States of America in Kolonia - April 09, 2015 -  The U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) Pacific American Climate Fund (PACAM) has awarded grants to two organizations in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) to enhance the resilience of the island communities against the impact of climate change and improve their livelihoods. Marine and Environmental Research Institute of Pohnpei (MERIP ) will receive $343,590 for its initiative, Climate Change Adaptation and Income Diversification in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, to boost the income-earning opportunities for Pohnpei Island's 35,000 inhabitants, and the College of Micronesia - FSM, will receive $556,264 for its Climate Resilient Adoption and Mainstreaming (CREAM) project to educate community members of climate-resilient agricultural methods on the Island of Yap.

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2014 was the warmest year across global land and ocean surfaces since records began in 1880


Global Highlights

  • The year 2014 was the warmest year across global land and ocean surfaces since records began in 1880. The annually-averaged temperature was 0.69°C (1.24°F) above the 20th century average of 13.9°C (57.0°F), easily breaking the previous records of 2005 and 2010 by 0.04°C (0.07°F). This also marks the 38th consecutive year (since 1977) that the yearly global temperature was above average. Including 2014, 9 of the 10 warmest years in the 135-year period of record have occurred in the 21st century. 1998 currently ranks as the fourth warmest year on record.

  • The 2014 global average ocean temperature was also record high, at 0.57°C (1.03°F) above the 20th century average of 16.1°C (60.9°F), breaking the previous records of 1998 and 2003 by 0.05°C (0.09°F). Notably, ENSO-neutral conditions were present during all of 2014.
  • The 2014 global average land surface temperature was 1.00°C (1.80°F) above the 20th century average of 8.5°C (47.3°F), the fourth highest annual value on record.
  • Precipitation measured at land-based stations around the globe was near average on balance for 2014, at 0.52 mm below the long-term average. However, as is typical, precipitation varied greatly from region to region. This is the third consecutive year with near-average global precipitation at land-based stations.

    Global Temperatures

    A record warm December sealed the deal to make 2014 the warmest year across the world's land and ocean surfaces since recordkeeping began in 1880. The average temperature for the year was 0.69°C (1.24°F) above the 20th century average of 13.9°C (57.0°F), beating the previous record warmth of 2010 and 2005 by 0.04°C (0.07°F).

    This marks the third time in the 21st century a new record high annual temperature has been set or tied and also marks the 38th consecutive year (since 1977) that the annual temperature has been above the long-term average. To date, including 2014, 9 of the 10 warmest years on record have occured during the 21st century. 1998 currently ranks as the fourth warmest year on record.

    This is the first time since 1990 the high temperature record was broken in the absence of El Niño conditions at any time during the year in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, as indicated by NOAA's CPC Oceanic Niño Index. This phenomenon generally tends to increase global temperatures around the globe, yet conditions remained neutral in this region during the entire year and the globe reached record warmth despite this.

    Six months of 2014 (May, June, August, September, October, and December) were record warm, while April was second warmest, January, March, and July were fourth warmest for their respective months, and November was seventh warmest.

    Overall, the global annual temperature has increased at an average rate of 0.06°C (0.11°F) per decade since 1880 and at an average rate of 0.16°C (0.28°F) per decade since 1970.

    NOAA National Climatic Data Center, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for Annual 2014






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Asia Pacific Parliamentary Forum passes resolution on climate change

Quito, Ecuador - JAN 14 2015
The members of the Asia Pacific Parliamentary Forum yesterday passed a resolution on climate change. The resolution was sponsored by Chile. It was acknowledged in the plenary session as being the hardest and the most delicate resolution to work on, with at times contentious debates in the Drafting Committee. "Finally compromise and good will prevailed," said Lam Dang who represented the FSM on the drafting committee. The resolution follows:
Considering with great concern the anticipated impacts on the global climate system described in the contribution made by the Work Group One to produce the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Referring to the fact that Climate Change presents significant threats to the achievement of the MDG´s and post 2015 development agenda and also has irreversible potential consequences for human societies, the future generations and the planet; Acknowledging the urgency and importance of adopting a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the UNFCCC applicable to all Parties to the Convention at its twenty-first session and for it to come into effect and be implemented from 2020; Bearing in mind that the continuous emission of Greenhouse Effect Gases (GHG) is the primary cause of a greater warming effect and of the changes in all of the components of the climate system, and that stopping the Climate Change requires substantial and constant reductions of GHG emissions; Considering that even with a zero level of net emissions in the immediate future, the global warming phenomenon will continue its effect in the future due to the high levels of accumulated concentrations of GHG; Drawing attention to the fact that the predictions made by the IPCC which are based on rigorous analyses of different climate models, not always can assess, in its true dimension, the synergies amongst the different variables that take part in the evolution of the climate;
Emphasizing the urgent need to take effective and sustainable global measures to deal with the Climate Change and to implement local and nationwide adapting measures to fight, even partially, the effects caused by the Climate Change; Acknowledging the role of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as the main forum to talk about Climate Change; Acknowledging with appreciation that the Conference of the Parties (COP 20) held in Peru in December 2014 underscored its commitment to reach an agreement in 2015 that reflects the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances; Acknowledging the problems the different countries are facing not only regarding the coordination of their policies and efforts aimed at reaching a global binding agreement to change: current energy production patterns, current consumption patterns, industrial plants technologies but also to carry out other actions in the short and long term that involve large economic investment and the development of new technology; Highlighting the role of the incentives, including market mechanisms, can make the advance possible in order to replace the high Green House Effect Gasses (GHG) technologies with new technologies based on renewable and efficient energy; Noting the human and economic effect that may be the result of climate change; Noting that safety, health and welfare of the APPF Member States and people of the Asia Pacific region and other parts of the world can benefit from effective measures that can reduce the GHG worldwide; Realizing the need for APPF Member States and other Nations to assume their responsibilities both towards their own people and towards humankind and to move forward and honor their commitments; Valuing the importance of regional cooperation and, at different levels – the information exchange to face climate change through international cooperation initiatives.
1. Urge all APPF Member States to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions consistent with relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in Lima Peru in 2014;
2. Exhort APPF Members States to work together inside the UNFCCC, to develop a protocol another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the UNFCCC applicable to all Parties;
3. Encourage all APPF Member States to start preparing their contributions for 2015;
4. Boost initiatives inside our own parliaments that could complement the UNFCCC Framework Convention;
5. Support to the strengthening of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the developing countries within the sustainable development framework;
6. Encourage the sharing of practical experiences of domestic mitigation actions to reduce emissions;
7. Call the governments of the region to support sustainable development policies and consider innovative models of international cooperation to reach sustainable development;
8. Work towards a new agreement on Climate Change through our parliamentary work to stimulate adaptation actions;
9. Work towards improving clean developing mechanisms;
10. Welcome the decision to set the Warsaw International Mechanism for loss and damage under the Cancun Adaptation Framework; 13. Implement an inter-parliamentary communication mechanism to exchange information, successful legal experiences and knowledge that could provide the proper and timely elements in response to Climate Change, amongst others, to our own domestic legislative bodies to promote stronger coordination efforts and eventually the progress during their normalization processes.
Quito, January 14th, 2015

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A Year in the Life of Earth's CO2

An ultra-high-resolution NASA computer model has given scientists a stunning new look at how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere travels around the globe.

Plumes of carbon dioxide in the simulation swirl and shift as winds disperse the greenhouse gas away from its sources. The simulation also illustrates differences in carbon dioxide levels in the northern and southern hemispheres and distinct swings in global carbon dioxide concentrations as the growth cycle of plants and trees changes with the seasons.

The carbon dioxide visualization was produced by a computer model called GEOS-5, created by scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office.

The visualization is a product of a simulation called a "Nature Run." The Nature Run ingests real data on atmospheric conditions and the emission of greenhouse gases and both natural and man-made particulates. The model is then left to run on its own and simulate the natural behavior of the Earth's atmosphere. This Nature Run simulates January 2006 through December 2006.

While Goddard scientists worked with a "beta" version of the Nature Run internally for several years, they released this updated, improved version to the scientific community for the first time in the fall of 2014.

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